Thoughtventions Research & Development Knowledge Resources

Thoughtventions Unlimited and Dr. Stephen Cuyler Bates have broad and detailed experience in the applied physical sciences.  TvU excels in multidisciplinary research into novel concepts that must be made into real devices.  Click the link to the area of you interest to learn more about the expertise, qualifications, and Facilities that TvU can bring to bear on your problem.  Dr. Bates' publications are also available.

To pursue your R & D project with TvU contact:

Dr. Stephen Cuyler Bates, President
Thoughtventions Unlimited LLC
P.O. Box 1310 (40 Nutmeg Lane)
Glastonbury, CT 06033
e-mail: thought@tvu.com
Tel: 860-657-9014, FAX: 860-657-2666

Technical Areas of Expertise:
Aeronautics and Astronautics High Temperature Optical Properties & Measurement
Ceramics Imaging
Combustion Injection Molding
Cryogenics / Cryogenic Solids Internal Combustion Engines
Crystal Growth Light Sources
Diamond Materials Science
Endoscope Shells Microscopy
Fiber Optics Microwave / RF Applications
Flow Diagnostics Optical Materials
Fluid Mechanics Optical Thin Films
Fullerenes Optics / Optical Diagnostics
Furnace Systems Particles in Flows
Fusion (Nuclear) Systems Plasma Diagnostics
Heat Exchangers Sapphire & Alumina
Heat Transfer Sensors
Heat Treatment Sintering
High Pressure Windows Spectroscopic Sensing
High / Low Temperature Diagnostics Vacuum Systems
High Temperature Materials Visualization

Funded Projects to Date :
Propulsion Prototype Cryogenic Solid Hydrogen Storage and Pellet Injection - Air Force
Solid Hydrogen Fueling of a Air Breathing Supersonic Combustor - NASA
Materials Controlled Crystal Growth Using Auxiliary Optical Heating and Optical Diagnostics - NASA
High Temperature Sapphire Fiber Optic Cladding - Air Force
A Novel Binder for Reactive Metal Injection Molding - National Science Foundation
Dental Materials Processing - Ney Dental International
Optics In Flight Imaging Systems for Hypervelocity and Re-Entry Vehicles - NASA
High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging Apparatus - NASA
Low Loss Sapphire Windows for High Power Microwave Transmission - Department of Energy
High Temperature Combustion Endoscope Design - NASA
Inset Flasher Development - DOT/FAA
CO2 Absorption Test Station/Sapphire Annealing Furnace - Meller Optics
Furnaces High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development - NASA
Low Mass, Low Power, Low Cost Space Furnace - NASA
High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core - NASA
Heat Transfer Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Droplet Heat Exchanger - NASA
Gas Cooled Endoscope - Three E Laboratories

Total Funding since 1993: $3.6 Million

Last Update: December 2005

Research and Development Details:

1) Aeronautics and Astronautics

MIT Aeronautics and Astronautics Department (BS 70, MS 71, ScD 77), 4.8/5.0 GPA

ScD Thesis: Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer

MS Thesis: Vortex Valve Control of Combustion Chamber Pressure

Funded Work: Turbulent Mixing, Solid Hydrogen Propellant Systems (DOD/AF), Solid Oxygen Propellant Systems (DOD/AF), UAV High Altitude Direct Contact Heat Exchanger (NASA), Solid Hydrogen Scramjet Fueling.

Areas of Additional Research: Propulsion, Liquid Propellants, Chemical Kinetics, Sprays, Flow Visualization, Combustion, Hypersonics, ALL Topics in Fluid Mechanics, Liquid, Hybrid and Solid Rockets, Jet Engines, Fuel Mixing, Flow & Combustion Diagnostics.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings.

U.S. Patent #6,003,300 "Technique for High Mixing Rate, Low Loss Supersonic Combustion with Solid Hydrogen and Liquid Helium Fuel," S.C. Bates, Glastonbury, CT, 1999

Society Memberships: AIAA, Combustion Institute

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer", Gas Turbine Lab Report #134, M.I.T. (1977).
  2. S.C. Bates, "Flame Imaging Studies of Flame Development in a SI Four-Stroke Engine," Dynamics of Deflagrations and Reactive Systems: Flames, A.L. Kuhl, J.C. Leyer, A.A. Borisov, and W.A. Sirignano, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, 131, AIAA, Washington , DC , 335-377 (1991).
  3. S.C. Bates, "Insights into Spark-Ignition Four-Stroke Combustion Using Direct Flame Imaging," Combustion and Flame, 85, 3 & 4, 331-352 (1991).
  4. V. Hruby, M. Martinez-Sanchez, S. Bates, D. Lorents, "A High Thrust Density, C60, Cluster, Ion Thruster," AIAA Paper 94-2466, (1994).
  5. S.C. Bates, "Title : Cryostabilized Propellant Additives," AIAA Paper #: AIAA-2003-5213, (2003).

2) Ceramics:

Funded Work: Sapphire Windows, Alumina & Mullite Furnace Shells, Ceramic Insulation, Sapphire/Alumina Bonding

Areas of Additional Research: Sapphire: Properties, Polishing, Strengthening, Inspection & Use, Boron Nitride Properties, Research and Use, Brittle Failure of Ceramics, Ceramic Sintering, Crack Propagation in Ceramics, Ceramic Machining, Sapphire/Alumina Bonding

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces, 1300°C Tube Air Furnace, 1300°C 50 cm cube Kiln, a 1600°C fiber treatment furnace, 700°C low power furnace (75 watts), a 250°C 45x35x55 cm oven, plus variety of 1200°C and below furnaces. Oven, Eurotherm temperature controllers, all types of standard and high temperature (PtRh) thermocouple monitors. Transparent Furnace Apparatus: Two temperature-controlled transparent furnaces (a single zone and a 2-zone type) and associated hardware designed to permit total optical access to small pieces undergoing heat treatment at temperatures up to 1200°C. These furnaces contain heat radiation to achieve high operating temperatures by using an infrared reflecting outer shell. Materials and Chemicals: Rare metals, precious metals, polishing materials, sapphire, quartz, ceramic insulation and glues, specialized chemicals, solvents, flameproof storage, hazardous chemical handling and storage equipment. Materials Inspection, Handling, and Testing Equipment: Jeol JSM-35 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Bausch & Lomb Metallograph, controlled atmosphere glovebox, hood and vent systems, ultrasonic cleaners, precision balances. Materials Processing Equipment: Boy 15/7 Injection Molding Machine, 20 ton press, 2 Strasbaugh polishing machines with polishing apparatus, Dallan Labs planetary lapping machine, manual polishing equipment. Precision diamond cutoff saw, diamond band saw, variety of diamond tooling. Mechanical Apparatus: TvU has a complete machine shop, including lathes and milling machines. It has ceramic machining capabilities including diamond tools, diamond band saw and large diameter diamond cut-off saw. Sample Preparation Equipment: Wide variety of polishing materials, laps, fixtures, cutting devices and tools for both metals and ceramics.

Society Memberships: MRS, ASM

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "Low Loss Sapphire Windows for High Power Microwave Transmission," SBIR Phase 2 Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG02-95ER86038, September, (1999).
  2. S.C. Bates, L. Liou, "High Performance Sapphire Windows," Technology 2002, NASA Conference, Baltimore, MD, Dec., (1992).
  3. S.C. Bates, and R.F. Chang, "High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging," Fiber and Integrated Optics, 16, 387-405, (1997).
  4. S.C. Bates, "A Transparent Engine for Flow and Combustion Visualization Studies", SAE Paper 880520 (1988).

3) Combustion

MIT Aeronautics and Astronautics Department at MIT (BS 70, MS 71, ScD 77), 4.8/5.0 GPA

ScD Thesis: Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Instantaneous image-intensified videography of engine flames, spark ignition, flame development, and combustion completion; flow/flame interactions.

Funded Work: Mild Gasification of Coal, Solid Oxygen & Solid Hydrogen Combustion, Electromagnetic Field Enhancement of Flames, Coal Combustion, Plastics Fire Testing, Particle Combustion, Laminar & Turbulent Flames.

U.S. Patent #6,003,300 "Technique for High Mixing Rate, Low Loss Supersonic Combustion with Solid Hydrogen and Liquid Helium Fuel," S.C. Bates, Glastonbury, CT, 1999

Areas of Additional Research: Turbulent Combustion, Hybrid Rocket Combustion, Cryogenic Combustion, Hypersonic Combustion, Propellants, Catalytic Combustion, Acoustically Enhanced Particle Combustion, Combustion Spectroscopy.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Combustion Equipment: Variety of laminar and turbulent burners of different geometries, Torches, Compressed flammable gases. Data Acquisition Systems: TvU owns Labview development software for graphical interface development and computer control. Multichannel data acquisition includes analog, digital, and 16 channels of thermocouple data. A wide variety of TvU's sensors are directly linked to a dedicated, mobile, DAQ system that is used for a variety of experiments. PLC systems, and imaging data acquisition are also in use. Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focussing optics. Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector.

Society Memberships: AIAA, Combustion Institute

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "Assessment Of Solid Hydrogen Slurry Fueling For An Air Breathing Supersonic Combustor," J. Propulsion and Power, 20, 5, (2004).
  2. S.C. Bates, and P.R. Solomon, "Elevated Temperature Oxygen Index Measurements and Apparatus," Journal of Fire Sciences, 11, May/June, 271-284, (1993).
  3. S.C. Bates, "Flame Imaging Studies of Combustion Completion in a SI Four-Stroke Engine," Comb. Sci. & Tech., 105, 1-18, (1995).
  4. S.C. Bates, R. Carangelo, K.S. Knight, M.A. Serio, "FT-IR Hadamard tomography of sooting flames", Rev. Sci. Instrum., 64, 5, 1213-1221, (1993).
  5. S.C. Bates, "Insights into Spark-Ignition Four-Stroke Combustion Using Direct Flame Imaging," Combustion and Flame, 85, 3 & 4, 331-352 (1991).
  6. S.C. Bates, R. Carangelo, K.S. Knight, M.A. Serio, "FT-IR Hadamard tomography of sooting flames", Rev. Sci. Instrum., 64, 5, 1213-1221, (1993).

4) Cryogenics/Cryogenic Solids

Employment Experience: 1977-1982 Staff Member Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working on ISX-A&B Tokamaks - Head Neutral Beam Operation, using large liquid nitrogen baffled, liquid helium cryopumps using a helium liquefier for supply. Cryopumps.

Funded Work: Measurement of Shear Strength of Solid Oxygen, Solid Oxygen Particle Combustion, Solid Hydrogen Particle Combustion, Solid Hydrogen Scramjet Fuelling, Solid Hydrogen Pellet Production and High-Speed Injection.

Areas of Additional Research: Solid Hydrogen Ablation, Extensive Research into the Properties of van der Waals Solids - especially H2, O2, and C60, Cryostabilized Propellant Additives, Cryogenic Valves, Engineering Properties of Cryosolids, Spectroscopy of Solid H2 & O2, Cryochemistry, Cryogenic van der Waals Compounds.

U.S. Patent #6,003,300 "Technique for High Mixing Rate, Low Loss Supersonic Combustion with Solid Hydrogen and Liquid Helium Fuel," S.C. Bates, Glastonbury, CT, 1999

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Cryogenics Equipment: Koch 1400 Helium Liquefier, 2 Koch 1410 He compressors and subcomponents that form a complete helium liquefication plant, Janis Supertran-VP continuous flow cryostat with a dual temperature controller that allows optical inspection of samples held at a temperature adjustable from 1.4 to 325 K. 100 and 500 l LHe, 500 l LN2 dewars, Standard cryogenic equipment consisting of dewars, vacuum insulated transfer lines, thermometry, and level detection. Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings.

Society Memberships: Cryogenic Society of America

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, and T.L. Altshuler, "Shear Strength Testing of Solid Oxygen," Cryogenics, 35, 559-566, (1995).
  2. S.C. Bates, " Assessment Of Solid Hydrogen Slurry Fueling For An Air Breathing Supersonic Combustor," J. Propulsion and Power, 20, 5, (2004).
  3. S.C. Bates, "Title : Cryostabilized Propellant Additives," AIAA Paper #: AIAA-2003-5213, (2003).
  4. S.C. Bates, "Prototype Cryogenic Solid Hydrogen Storage and Pellet Injection System," SBIR Phase I Final Report, USAF Phillips Lab Contract # F04611-93-C-0086, Report # PL-TR-94-3015, (1994).
  5. S.C. Bates, "Discrete Injection and Storage of Solid Oxygen," SBIR Phase I Final Report, USAF Phillips Lab Contract # F29601-92-C-0094, Report # PL-TR-93-3013, (1993).

5) Crystal Growth

Funded Work: Optical Heating for Temperature Gradient Control in Bridgman Crystal Growth

Areas of Additional Research: Crystal Growth Furnaces, Transparent Furnaces, Temperature Gradient Control, Sapphire crystal growth, Bridgman Process Crystal Growth, Crystal Perfection Diagnosis.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings. Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces, 1300°C Tube Air Furnace, 1300°C 50 cm cube Kiln, a 1600°C fiber treatment furnace, 700°C low power furnace (75 watts), a 250°C 45x35x55 cm oven, plus variety of 1200°C and below furnaces. Oven, Eurotherm temperature controllers, all types of standard and high temperature (PtRh) thermocouple monitors. Transparent Furnace Apparatus: Two temperature-controlled transparent furnaces (a single zone and a 2-zone type) and associated hardware designed to permit total optical access to small pieces undergoing heat treatment at temperatures up to 1200°C. These furnaces contain heat radiation to achieve high operating temperatures by using an infrared reflecing outer shell. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Materials Inspection, Handling, and Testing Equipment: Jeol JSM-35 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Bausch & Lomb Metallograph, controlled atmosphere glovebox, hood and vent systems, ultrasonic cleaners, precision balances. Materials Processing Equipment: Boy 15/7 Injection Molding Machine, 20 ton press, 2 Strasbaugh polishing machines with polishing apparatus, Dallan Labs planetary lapping machine, manual polishing equipment. Precision diamond cutoff saw, diamond band saw, variety of diamond tooling. Sample Preparation Equipment: Wide variety of polishing materials, laps, fixtures, cutting devices and tools for both metals and ceramics.

Society Memberships: MRS

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, K.S. Knight, " Auxiliary Optical Heating for Controlled Crystal Growth," J. Crystal Growth, 240, 1-2, 277-286, (2002).
  2. S.C. Bates, X.S. Zhang, T.S. Bigelow, "Low Loss Sapphire Windows for High Power Microwave Transmission," SBIR Phase I Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG02-95ER86038, April, (1996).
  3. S.C. Bates, L. Liou, "High Performance Sapphire Windows," Technology 2002, NASA Conference, Baltimore, MD, Dec., (1992).

6) Diamond

Patent: U.S. Patent #5,885,541 "Process for the Fabrication of Bulk Porous Diamond," S.C. Bates, Glastonbury, CT, 1999

Areas of Additional Research: Fullerene diamond growth, CVD diamond growth, Diamond Heat Sink, CVD Diamond Impurities, Applications of Diamond in Optics & Heat Transfer.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Materials Inspection, Handling, and Testing Equipment: Jeol JSM-35 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Bausch & Lomb Metallograph, controlled atmosphere glovebox, hood and vent systems, ultrasonic cleaners, precision balances. Materials Processing Equipment: Boy 15/7 Injection Molding Machine, 20 ton press, 2 Strasbaugh polishing machines with polishing apparatus, Dallan Labs planetary lapping machine, manual polishing equipment. Precision diamond cutoff saw, diamond band saw, variety of diamond tooling.

Society Memberships: MRS

7) Endoscope Shells

Funded Work: Development of a Gas Cooled Endoscope Shell

Areas of Additional Research: Gas Cooled Endoscope Shell Applications, Water Cooled Endoscope Shells, Endoscope Window Bonding, Endoscope Windows & Lenses, Endoscope Cleaning Flows.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector.

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, M.J. Pollack, "Gas-cooled probe protectors," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3852, Sept. (1999)
  2. M. Pollack and S.C. Bates, "Taking Optical Probes in Harsh Environments," Sensors, 17, 6, 76-82 June, (2000).

8) Fiber Optics

Funded Work: High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging, Sapphire Fiber Cladding, Pt Tipped Sapphire Fiber Temperature Sensors.

Areas of Additional Research: Fiber Optic Sensors, Fiber Optic High Power Delivery, Fiber Optic Polishing, Sapphire Fibers, Fiber Optic Cladding, Fiber Optic Sliprings, Mechanical Properties of Fibers, Fiber Fabrication, High Temperature Fiber Optic Sensors, Mechanical and Optical Response of Fibers to High Temperature, Fiber Production, Fiber Drawing Furnaces.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focussing optics. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector.

Society Memberships: SPIE

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, and R.F. Chang, "High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging," Fiber and Integrated Optics, 16, 387-405, (1997).
  2. M.A. Serio, H. Teng, K.S. Knight, S.C. Bates, P.R. Solomon, "In-Situ FT-IR Diagnostics for Coal Liquefaction Processes," SBIR Phase I Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG05-91ER81151, June, (1992).
  3. M.A. Serio, H. Teng, K.S. Knight, S.C. Bates, et.al., "In-situ fiber optic FT-IR spectroscopy for coal liquefaction processes", SPIE Paper No. 2069, (Dec., 1993).

9) Flow Diagnostics

MIT Aeronautics and Astronautics Department at MIT (BS 70, MS 71, ScD 77), 4.8/5.0 GPA

ScD Thesis: Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer

He designed, built, and operated a blowdown facility to study turbulent mixing. For this program he considered an array of flow visualization techniques including gas or liquid optical excitation, index of refraction difference imaging (Schlieren and Shadowgraph), particle seeding, and others. The most appropriate technique at that time was found to be planar excited phosphorescence pumped by a focused UV flash lamp which was then a novel technique. The thesis data was in the form of the intensified flow structure images, and data analysis was limited by a lack of the image processing hardware and software now available and used in his later sapphire engine work. Flow velocities measured with a hot wire anemometer.

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Over 6 years (1984-90) his project was the design, construction, and successful operation of a unique (in the world at the time and currently much copied) single cylinder engine with full compression and combustion in a single-crystal sapphire cylinder. Together with a quartz piston top this engine gives complete optical access to the flow and combustion processes in the cylinder. Instantaneous image-intensified videography of engine flames together with image processing and analysis led to extensive research and publications concerning the fundamental processes of flow and flame propagation inside of the cylinder. As a tool for studying in-cylinder flows he developed a velocity diagnostic based on seeding micron-sized phosphorescing particles into the flow.

Funded Work: ScD Thesis research on turbulent flow visualization, Particle Tracer Imaging.

Areas of Additional Research: Extensive research into a wide variety of gas flow visualization techniques at low to high flow speeds and Reynolds numbers, Detailed experimental experience with optical use of particle and gaseous tracers, Graphical presentation of flows.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Combustion Equipment: Variety of laminar and turbulent burners of different geometries, Torches, Compressed flammable gases. Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focusing optics. Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector.

Society Memberships: AIAA

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "A displaced-line velocity diagnostic and its application in a visualization engine," Experiments in Fluids, 7, 5, 335-343 (1989).
  2. S.C. Bates, "Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer", Gas Turbine Lab Report #134, M.I.T. (1977).
  3. S.C. Bates, "UAV Droplet Heat Exchanger," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS4-97018, Sept. (1997).
  4. S.C. Bates, "Flame Imaging Studies of Flame Development in a SI Four-Stroke Engine," Dynamics of Deflagrations and Reactive Systems: Flames, A.L. Kuhl, J.C. Leyer, A.A. Borisov, and W.A. Sirignano, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, 131, AIAA, Washington , DC , 335-377 (1991).
  5. S.C. Bates, "Assessment Of Solid Hydrogen Slurry Fueling For An Air Breathing Supersonic Combustor," J. Propulsion and Power, 20, 5, (2004).

10) Fluid Mechanics

MIT Aeronautics and Astronautics Department at MIT (BS 70, MS 71, ScD 77), 4.8/5.0 GPA

ScD Thesis: Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer

He designed, built, and operated a blowdown facility to study turbulent mixing. For this program he considered an array of flow visualization techniques including gas or liquid optical excitation, index of refraction difference imaging (Schlieren and Shadowgraph), particle seeding, and others. The most appropriate technique at that time found to be planar excited phosphorescence pumped by a focused UV flash lamp which was then a novel technique. The thesis data was in the form of the intensified flow structure images, and data analysis was limited by a lack of the image processing hardware and software now available and used in his later sapphire engine work.

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Over 6 years (1984-90) his project was the design, construction, and successful operation of a unique (in the world at the time and currently much copied) single cylinder engine with full compression and combustion in a single-crystal sapphire cylinder. Together with a quartz piston top this engine gives complete optical access to the flow and combustion processes in the cylinder. Instantaneous image-intensified videography of engine flames together with image processing and analysis led to extensive research into the visualization of the flows and flames inside the cylinder volume. Dr. Bates developed a velocity diagnostic based on seeding micron-sized phosphorescing particles into the flow to provide visualization of the 3-D in-cylinder velocities.

Funded Work: Droplet and Particle Laden Flows, Supersonic Flows & Shock Waves, Ablation, Combustion Flows, Fluid Flow in Pipes, Molecular Gas Flow.

Areas of Additional Research: Laminar, Transition, and Turbulent Flow, Laminar & Turbulent Mixing, Vortices, Hypersonic Flows, Flow Visualization, Particles and Droplets in Flows, Flow Convection/Buoyancy Flows, Non-Newtonion Flows, Boundary Layer Flows, Lubrication Flows, Plasma Flows, 2 and 3 Phase Flows.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Combustion Equipment: Variety of laminar and turbulent burners of different geometries, Torches, Compressed flammable gases. Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focusing optics. Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings. Vacuum Systems: Multiported, Instrumented Diffusion Pump Vacuum Stations: one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long, one 60 cm ID x 40 High with automated controls, 50 cm Bell-Jar Vacuum Station; Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA), multiple diffusion pumps and mechanical vacuum pumps, LN2 baffles and traps, ionization, thermocouple, convection gauges, conflat/KF& etc. hardware.

U.S. Patent #6,003,300 "Technique for High Mixing Rate, Low Loss Supersonic Combustion with Solid Hydrogen and Liquid Helium Fuel," S.C. Bates, Glastonbury , CT , 1999

Society Memberships: AIAA

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "A displaced-line velocity diagnostic and its application in a visualization engine," Experiments in Fluids, 7, 5, 335-343 (1989).
  2. S.C. Bates, "Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer", Gas Turbine Lab Report #134, M.I.T. (1977).
  3. S.C. Bates, "UAV Droplet Heat Exchanger," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS4-97018, Sept. (1997).
  4. S.C. Bates, "Assessment Of Solid Hydrogen Slurry Fueling For An Air Breathing Supersonic Combustor," J. Propulsion and Power, 20, 5, (2004).
  5. S.C. Bates, K.H. Burrell, "Fast gas injection system for plasma physics experiments", Rev. Sci. Instrum., 55, 6, June, 934-939 (1984).

11) Fullerenes

Areas of Additional Research: Fullerenes for Ion Engines, Fullerenes as a Diamond Precursor, Fullerene Production Techniques.

Patent: U.S. Patent #5,885,541 "Process for the Fabrication of Bulk Porous Diamond," S.C. Bates, Glastonbury, CT, 1999

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings. Vacuum Systems: Multiported, Instrumented Diffusion Pump Vacuum Stations: one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long, one 60 cm ID x 40 High with automated controls, 50 cm Bell-Jar Vacuum Station; Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA), multiple diffusion pumps and mechanical vacuum pumps, LN2 baffles and traps, ionization, thermocouple, convection gauges, conflat/KF& etc. hardware.

Society Memberships: MRS

Selected References:

  1. V. Hruby, M. Martinez-Sanchez, S. Bates, D. Lorents, "Fullerene Fueled Electrostatic Thrusters - Feasibility and Initial Experiments," AIAA Paper 94-3240, (1994).
  2. V. Hruby, M. Martinez-Sanchez, S. Bates, D. Lorents, "A High Thrust Density, C60, Cluster, Ion Thruster," AIAA Paper 94-2466, (1994).

12) Furnace Systems

Funded Work: High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core, High Temperature Transparent Furnace (NASA), Low Power Space Furnace (NASA), High Efficiency Solar Furnace (NASA), Designed and Developed many types of Commercial Air, Vacuum, and Inert Gas Furnaces up to 2000°C and above.

Areas of Additional Research: Ceramics, Ceramic Insulation, Convective, Conductive, & Radiative heat transfer, High temperature materials, Detailed properties and behavior of tungsten, molybdenum, and kanthal, MoSi2, Furnace fabrication techniques, Electrical heating techniques, Generic furnace design, Design of air, reducing, and vacuum furnaces, Temperature Diagnostics, Furnace Electrical Power Supplies, Furnace Temperature Controllers.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces, 1300°C Tube Air Furnace, 1300°C 50 cm cube Kiln, a 1600°C fiber treatment furnace, 700°C low power furnace (75 watts), a 250°C 45x35x55 cm oven, plus variety of 1200°C and below furnaces. Oven, Eurotherm temperature controllers, all types of standard and high temperature (PtRh) thermocouple monitors. Transparent Furnace Apparatus: Two temperature-controlled transparent furnaces (a single zone and a 2-zone type) and associated hardware designed to permit total optical access to small pieces undergoing heat treatment at temperatures up to 1200°C. These furnaces contain heat radiation to achieve high operating temperatures by using an infrared reflecting outer shell. Vacuum Systems: Multiported, Instrumented Diffusion Pump Vacuum Stations: one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long, one 60 cm ID x 40 High with automated controls, 50 cm Bell-Jar Vacuum Station; Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA), multiple diffusion pumps and mechanical vacuum pumps, LN2 baffles and traps, ionization, thermocouple, convection gauges, conflat/KF& etc. hardware.

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Contract # NNM05AA41C, July, (2005).
  2. S.C. Bates, "Low Mass, Low Power, Low Cost Space Furnace," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Contract # NAS8-99040, June, (1999).
  3. D.W. Yoel and S.C. Bates "Visual Monitoring of MIM Debinding and Sintering", International Conference on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, May 14-17 Seattle, Washington (1995).
  4. S.C. Bates, "High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development," SBIR Phase 2 Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS3-27664, July, (1997).
  5. S.C. Bates, and R.F. Chang, "High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging," Fiber and Integrated Optics, 16, 387-405, (1997).

13) Fusion (Nuclear) Systems

MIT: Took double the # of course credits needed for BS; 1/3 in the Physics Dept, including numerous graduate courses. 4.8/5.0 overall GPA

Employment Experience: 1977-1982 Staff Member Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, worked on ISX-A&B Tokamaks - Machine Operation, Head Neutral Beam Operation, Gas fuelling, MHD diagnostic, Ion Exchange Diagnostic, Diagnostic Neutral Beam.

Areas of Additional Research: Plasma Dynamics, Plasma Diagnostics, Plasma-Surface Interactions and Diagnostics, Plasma Fuelling, Neutral Beam Injection, Microwave Power Injection.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Vacuum Systems: Multiported, Instrumented Diffusion Pump Vacuum Stations: one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long, one 60 cm ID x 40 High with automated controls, 50 cm Bell-Jar Vacuum Station; Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA), multiple diffusion pumps and mechanical vacuum pumps, LN2 baffles and traps, ionization, thermocouple, convection gauges, conflat/KF& etc. hardware.

Society Memberships: Am. Phys. Soc. (APS) (78-83).

Selected References:

  1. L.A. Massengill, P.H. Edmonds, S.C. Bates, C.M. Loring, "Neutral beam systems for the ISX-B experiment", Proc. Symp. Eng. Probl. Fusion Res., 8, 2, 953-5 (1979).
  2. S.D. Scott, J.F. Lyon, J.K. Munro, D.J. Sigmar, S.C. Bates, J.D. Bell, C.E. Bush, A. Carnevali, et. al., "Measurements of Periodic Ripple Transport in the ISX-B Tokamak", Nucl. Fusion ( Austria ), 25, March, 359-382 (1985).
  3. S.C. Bates, K.H. Burrell, "Fast gas injection system for plasma physics experiments", Rev. Sci. Instrum., 55, 6, June, 934-939 (1984).
  4. G.H. Neilson, E.A. Lazarus, M. Murakami, A.J. Wooton, J.L. Dunlap, S.C. Bates, J.D. Bell, C.E. Bush, P.H. Edmonds, et. al., "Beta and confinement scaling studies with neutral-beam heating in the ISX-B tokamak", Nucl. Fusion ( Austria ), 23, 3, March, 285-94 (1983).
  5. M. Murakami, G.H. Neilson, H.C. Howe, T.C. Jernigan, S.C. Bates, C.E. Bush, et. al., "Plasma confinement studies in the ISX-A Tokamak", Phys. Rev. Lett., 42, 10, 655-8 (1979).

14) Heat Exchangers

Employment Experience: 1) 1977-1982 Staff Member Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory - Heat Exchange Measurement of Neutral Beam Power.

2) 1983-1988 Engineer, General Motors Research Labs - Heat Exchange design of a realistic sapphire-cylinder spark ignition research engine.

Funded Work: High Altitude UAX Direct Contact Droplet Heat Exchanger, Air/Liquid Heat Exchangers, Attached Tube Heat Exchangers.

Areas of Additional Research: TvU performs work in all types of Conductive, Convective and Radiative Heat Exchangers that use a wide variety of materials and materials interfaces.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Coolers: Polycold -50°C baffle chiller. Combustion Equipment: Variety of laminar and turbulent burners of different geometries, Torches, Compressed flammable gases. Cryogenics Equipment: Koch 1400 Helium Liquefier, 2 Koch 1410 He compressors and subcomponents that form a complete helium liquefication plant, Janis Supertran-VP continuous flow cryostat with a dual temperature controller that allows optical inspection of samples held at a temperature adjustable from 1.4 to 325 K. 100 and 500 l LHe, 500 l LN2 dewars, Standard cryogenic equipment consisting of dewars, vacuum insulated transfer lines, thermometry, and level detection. Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces, 1300°C Tube Air Furnace, 1300°C 50 cm cube Kiln, a 1600°C fiber treatment furnace, 700°C low power furnace (75 watts), a 250°C 45x35x55 cm oven, plus variety of 1200°C and below furnaces. Oven, Eurotherm temperature controllers, all types of standard and high temperature (PtRh) thermocouple monitors. Transparent Furnace Apparatus: Two temperature-controlled transparent furnaces (a single zone and a 2-zone type) and associated hardware designed to permit total optical access to small pieces undergoing heat treatment at temperatures up to 1200°C. These furnaces contain heat radiation to achieve high operating temperatures by using an infrared reflecting outer shell.

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "UAV Droplet Heat Exchanger," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS4-97018, Sept. (1997).
  2. S.C. Bates, P.H. Edmonds, J. Kim, C.E. Bush, L.A. Massengill, D.R. Overbey, and J.W. Pearce, "ISX-B Neutral Beams and the Beam Target Experiment", Oak Ridge National Laboratory Report ORNL/TM-7452 (1980).
  3. S.C. Bates, "Low Mass, Low Power, Low Cost Space Furnace," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Contract # NAS8-99040, June, (1999).
  4. S.C. Bates, "In Flight Imaging Systems For Hypervelocity And Reentry Vehicles," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Langley Research Center, Contract # NNL04AB18P, July, (2004).
  5. S.C. Bates, "Techniques in Cryostabilized Additive Concentration," AIAA Paper #: AIAA-2004-4038, (2004).

15) Heat Transfer

Funded Work: High Altitude UAX Direct Contact Droplet Heat Exchanger, High Power Sapphire Microwave Windows, Ablation Heat Transfer, Many Commercial Laboratory Furnaces, Rocket Propulsion Heat Transfer, Liquid Cooling of many devices, Gas Cooling of Endoscope Shells, Hypersonic Vehicle Heat Transfer.

Areas of Additional Research: TvU performs work in all types of Conductive, Convective and Radiative Heat Exchange through a wide variety of materials and materials interfaces.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Coolers: Polycold -50°C baffle chiller. Combustion Equipment: Variety of laminar and turbulent burners of different geometries, Torches, Compressed flammable gases. Cryogenics Equipment: Koch 1400 Helium Liquefier, 2 Koch 1410 He compressors and subcomponents that form a complete helium liquefication plant, Janis Supertran-VP continuous flow cryostat with a dual temperature controller that allows optical inspection of samples held at a temperature adjustable from 1.4 to 325 K. 100 and 500 l LHe, 500 l LN2 dewars, Standard cryogenic equipment consisting of dewars, vacuum insulated transfer lines, thermometry, and level detection. Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces, 1300°C Tube Air Furnace, 1300°C 50 cm cube Kiln, a 1600°C fiber treatment furnace, 700°C low power furnace (75 watts), a 250°C 45x35x55 cm oven, plus variety of 1200°C and below furnaces. Oven, Eurotherm temperature controllers, all types of standard and high temperature (PtRh) thermocouple monitors. Transparent Furnace Apparatus: Two temperature-controlled transparent furnaces (a single zone and a 2-zone type) and associated hardware designed to permit total optical access to small pieces undergoing heat treatment at temperatures up to 1200°C. These furnaces contain heat radiation to achieve high operating temperatures by using an infrared reflecting outer shell.

U.S. Patent #6,003,300 "Technique for High Mixing Rate, Low Loss Supersonic Combustion with Solid Hydrogen and Liquid Helium Fuel," S.C. Bates, Glastonbury , CT , 1999

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "Low Mass, Low Power, Low Cost Space Furnace," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Contract # NAS8-99040, June, (1999).
  2. S.C. Bates, "Assessment Of Solid Hydrogen Slurry Fueling For An Air Breathing Supersonic Combustor," J. Propulsion and Power, 20, 5, (2004).
  3. S.C. Bates, "UAV Droplet Heat Exchanger," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS4-97018, Sept. (1997).
  4. S.C. Bates, K.S. Knight, "Auxiliary Optical Heating for Controlled Crystal Growth," J. Crystal Growth, 240, 1-2, 277-286, (2002).
  5. S.C. Bates, M.J. Pollack, "Gas-cooled probe protectors," Proc. SPIE, Vol. 3852, Sept. (1999)

16) Heat Treatment

Funded Work: Vacuum Heat Treating of Metal, Heat Treatment of Carbon & Graphite, Metal Bonding/Brazing, High Temperature Air Cleaning of Ceramics.

Areas of Additional Research: TvU performs Research, Development, and Applications in all types of Heat Treating.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces, 1300°C Tube Air Furnace, 1300°C 50 cm cube Kiln, a 1600°C fiber treatment furnace, 700oC low power furnace (75 watts), a 250°C 45x35x55 cm oven, plus variety of 1200°C and below furnaces. Oven, Eurotherm temperature controllers, all types of standard and high temperature (PtRh) thermocouple monitors. Transparent Furnace Apparatus: Two temperature-controlled transparent furnaces (a single zone and a 2-zone type) and associated hardware designed to permit total optical access to small pieces undergoing heat treatment at temperatures up to 1200°C. These furnaces contain heat radiation to achieve high operating temperatures by using an infrared reflecting outer shell. Materials Inspection, Handling, and Testing Equipment: Jeol JSM-35 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Bausch & Lomb Metallograph, controlled atmosphere glovebox, hood and vent systems, ultrasonic cleaners, precision balances. Sample Preparation Equipment: Wide variety of polishing materials, laps, fixtures, cutting devices and tools for both metals and ceramics.

Selected References:

  1. D.W. Yoel and S.C. Bates "Visual Monitoring of MIM Debinding and Sintering", International Conference on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, May 14-17 Seattle, Washington (1995).
  2. P.R. Solomon, S.C. Bates, Y.P. Zhang, "Mild Gasification in Transport Reactors," SBIR Phase I Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG05-90ER80877, April, (1991).
  3. S.C. Bates, "High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development," SBIR Phase 2 Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS3-27664, July, (1997).
  4. S.C. Bates, "Controlled Crystal Growth Using Auxiliary Optical Heating and Optical Diagnostics," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS8-40546, June, (1995).

17) High Pressure Windows

MIT Aeronautics and Astronautics Department (BS 70, MS 71, ScD 77), 4.8/5.0 GPA

M.S.Thesis: Fabrication and Testing of Plexiglas Transparent Hybrid Rocket.

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Dr. Bates' project was the design, construction, and successful operation of a unique (in the world at the time and currently much copied) single cylinder engine with full compression and combustion in a single-crystal sapphire cylinder. Together with a quartz piston top this engine gives complete optical access to the flow and combustion processes in the cylinder. Instantaneous image-intensified videography of engine flames together with image processing and analysis led to extensive research and publications concerning the fundamental processes of flow and flame propagation inside of the cylinder.

Funded Work: High Pressure High Temperature Gas Cells, High Pressure Sapphire Windows, High Pressure Window Flange Design, High Pressure Seals, Failure Design, Materials Design.

Areas of Additional Research: Continuous improvement of Window Design at lower cost.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Materials Inspection, Handling, and Testing Equipment: Jeol JSM-35 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Bausch & Lomb Metallograph, controlled atmosphere glovebox, hood and vent systems, ultrasonic cleaners, precision balances. Materials Processing Equipment: Boy 15/7 Injection Molding Machine, 20 ton press, 2 Strasbaugh polishing machines with polishing apparatus, Dallan Labs planetary lapping machine, manual polishing equipment. Precision diamond cutoff saw, diamond band saw, variety of diamond tooling. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector. Sample Preparation Equipment: Wide variety of polishing materials, laps, fixtures, cutting devices and tools for both metals and ceramics.

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "A Transparent Engine for Flow and Combustion Visualization Studies", SAE Paper 880520 (1988).
  2. S.C. Bates, "High Performance Sapphire Windows," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS3-26330, August, (1992).
  3. S.C. Bates, "Vortex Valve Exhaust-Driven Pressure Oscillations in Hybrid Combustion", Master's Thesis, Dept. of Aeronautics and Astronautics, M.I.T, June, (1971).
  4. M. Pollack and S.C. Bates, "Taking Optical Probes in Harsh Environments," Sensors, 17, 6, 76-82 June, (2000).
  5. S.C. Bates, "In Flight Imaging Systems For Hypervelocity And Reentry Vehicles," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Langley Research Center, Contract # NNL04AB18P, July, (2004).

18) High/Low Temperature Diagnostics

Employment Experience: 1977-1982 Staff Member Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, worked on ISX-A&B Tokamaks - Plasma Diagnostics: Radiation Intensity, Dynamic Magnetic Field Measurements, X-Ray Measurements, Spectroscopic Measurements, Laser Probing, Ion and Neutral Beam Probes.

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Flame imaging in a single cylinder engine with full compression and combustion in a single-crystal sapphire cylinder. Thermal monitoring of the engine components.

Funded Work: Transparent Furnace Diagnostics, Furnace Thermocouples, IR Thermometry, Fiber Optic Thermometry, High Temperature Material Response, IR Cameras, High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging.

Areas of Additional Research: Continuing work on high temperature sensing, Cryogenic Silicon Temperature Sensors.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Combustion Equipment: Variety of laminar and turbulent burners of different geometries, Torches, Compressed flammable gases. Cryogenics Equipment: Koch 1400 Helium Liquefier, 2 Koch 1410 He compressors and subcomponents that form a complete helium liquefication plant, Janis Supertran-VP continuous flow cryostat with a dual temperature controller that allows optical inspection of samples held at a temperature adjustable from 1.4 to 325 K. 100 and 500 l LHe, 500 l LN2 dewars, Standard cryogenic equipment consisting of dewars, vacuum insulated transfer lines, thermometry, and level detection. Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focussing optics. Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings. Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces, 1300°C Tube Air Furnace, 1300°C 50 cm cube Kiln, a 1600°C fiber treatment furnace, 700°C low power furnace (75 watts), a 250°C 45x35x55 cm oven, plus variety of 1200°C and below furnaces. Oven, Eurotherm temperature controllers, all types of standard and high temperature (PtRh) thermocouple monitors. Transparent Furnace Apparatus: Two temperature-controlled transparent furnaces (a single zone and a 2-zone type) and associated hardware designed to permit total optical access to small pieces undergoing heat treatment at temperatures up to 1200°C. These furnaces contain heat radiation to achieve high operating temperatures by using an infrared reflecting outer shell. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector.

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, and R.F. Chang, "High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging," Fiber and Integrated Optics, 16, 387-405, (1997).
  2. S.C. Bates, R. Carangelo, K.S. Knight, M.A. Serio, "FT-IR Hadamard tomography of sooting flames", Rev. Sci. Instrum., 64, 5, 1213-1221, (1993).
  3. C.H. Muller III, D.R. Eames, K.H. Burrell, and S.C. Bates, "Dye Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy on the Doublet III Tokamak", J. Nucl. Mater. ( Netherlands ), Vol. 111-112, Nov. Dec., 1982, 56-60 (5th International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions, 3-7 May 1982, Gatlinburg , TN ) (1982).
  4. S.C. Bates, and T.L. Altshuler, "Shear Strength Testing of Solid Oxygen," Cryogenics, 35, 559-566, (1995)
  5. S.C. Bates, "High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development," SBIR Phase 2 Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS3-27664, July, (1997).

19) High Temperature Materials

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Dr. Bates' project was the design, construction, and successful operation of a unique (in the world at the time and currently much copied) single cylinder engine with full compression and combustion in a single-crystal sapphire cylinder. Together with a quartz piston top this engine gives complete optical access to the flow and combustion processes in the cylinder. The key element in the fabrication of this engine was the high temperature performance of sapphire.

Funded Work: Numerous Commercial Furnaces Operating to 2500°C, High Temperature Fiber Optics (Sapphire & Quartz), High Temperature Transparent Furnace, High Temperature Metals (W, Mo, etc.), High Temperature Ceramics and Ceramic Insulation, Sapphire, Superalloys, Boron Nitride.

Areas of Additional Research: Continuous Research and Development in High Temperature Materials of all types for many applications.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Combustion Equipment: Variety of laminar and turbulent burners of different geometries, Torches, Compressed flammable gases. Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces, 1300°C Tube Air Furnace, 1300°C 50 cm cube Kiln, a 1600°C fiber treatment furnace, 700°C low power furnace (75 watts), a 250°C 45x35x55 cm oven, plus variety of 1200°C and below furnaces. Oven, Eurotherm temperature controllers, all types of standard and high temperature (PtRh) thermocouple monitors. Transparent Furnace Apparatus: Two temperature-controlled transparent furnaces (a single zone and a 2-zone type) and associated hardware designed to permit total optical access to small pieces undergoing heat treatment at temperatures up to 1200°C. These furnaces contain heat radiation to achieve high operating temperatures by using an infrared reflecting outer shell. Materials Processing Equipment: Boy 15/7 Injection Molding Machine, 20 ton press, 2 Strasbaugh polishing machines with polishing apparatus, Dallan Labs planetary lapping machine, manual polishing equipment. Precision diamond cutoff saw, diamond band saw, variety of diamond tooling. Sample Preparation Equipment: Wide variety of polishing materials, laps, fixtures, cutting devices and tools for both metals and ceramics.

Society Memberships: MRS, ASM

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development," SBIR Phase 2 Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS3-27664, July, (1997).
  2. S.C. Bates, and R.F. Chang, "High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging," Fiber and Integrated Optics, 16, 387-405, (1997).
  3. S.C. Bates, "In Flight Imaging Systems For Hypervelocity And Reentry Vehicles," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Langley Research Center, Contract # NNL04AB18P, July, (2004).
  4. S.C. Bates, "High Temperature Sapphire Fiber Cladding," STTR Phase I Final Report, AFOSR Contract # F49620-98-C-0063, March, (1999).
  5. S.C. Bates, W.W. Smith, G. Reethof, "Acoustic Hot Gas Cleanup of Coal Ash Particles," SBIR Phase I Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG05-92ER81325, April, (1993).

20) High Temperature Optical Properties/Measurement

Funded Work: High Temperature Optical Properties of Sapphire and Sapphire Fibers, High Temperature Optical Properties of Quartz, Emissivities of Materials at High Temperature.

Areas of Additional Research: Continuous Research and Development into High Temperature Material Emissivities.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Combustion Equipment: Variety of laminar and turbulent burners of different geometries, Torches, Compressed flammable gases. Cryogenics Equipment: Koch 1400 Helium Liquefier, 2 Koch 1410 He compressors and subcomponents that form a complete helium liquefication plant, Janis Supertran-VP continuous flow cryostat with a dual temperature controller that allows optical inspection of samples held at a temperature adjustable from 1.4 to 325 K. 100 and 500 l LHe, 500 l LN2 dewars, Standard cryogenic equipment consisting of dewars, vacuum insulated transfer lines, thermometry, and level detection. Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focussing optics. Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings. Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces, 1300°C Tube Air Furnace, 1300°C 50 cm cube Kiln, a 1600°C fiber treatment furnace, 700°C low power furnace (75 watts), a 250°C 45x35x55 cm oven, plus variety of 1200°C and below furnaces. Oven, Eurotherm temperature controllers, all types of standard and high temperature (PtRh) thermocouple monitors. Transparent Furnace Apparatus: Two temperature-controlled transparent furnaces (a single zone and a 2-zone type) and associated hardware designed to permit total optical access to small pieces undergoing heat treatment at temperatures up to 1200°C. These furnaces contain heat radiation to achieve high operating temperatures by using an infrared reflecting outer shell. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector.

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, and R.F. Chang, "High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging," Fiber and Integrated Optics, 16, 387-405, (1997).
  2. S.C. Bates, "High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development," SBIR Phase 2 Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS3-27664, July, (1997).
  3. S.C. Bates, K.S. Knight, " Auxiliary Optical Heating for Controlled Crystal Growth," J. Crystal Growth, 240, 1-2, 277-286, (2002).
  4. S.C. Bates, "In Flight Imaging Systems For Hypervelocity And Reentry Vehicles," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Langley Research Center, Contract # NNL04AB18P, July, (2004).
  5. P.R. Solomon, P.W. Morrison Jr., M.A. Serio, R.M. Carangelo, J.R. Markham, S.C. Bates, and J.E. Cosgrove, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Process Monitoring and Control, SPIE International Society for Optical Engineering, Berlin, Germany, Paper No. 1717-12, (June 22-26, 1992).

21) Imaging

ScD Thesis: Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer

He designed, built, and operated a blowdown facility to study turbulent mixing. For this program he considered an array of flow visualization techniques including gas or liquid optical excitation, index of refraction difference imaging (Schlieren and Shadowgraph), particle seeding, and others. The most appropriate technique at that time was found to be planar excited phosphorescence pumped by a focused UV flash lamp which was then a novel technique. The thesis data was in the form of the intensified flow structure images, and data analysis was limited by a lack of the image processing hardware and software now available and used in his later sapphire engine work.

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Dr. Bates' project was the design, construction, and successful operation of a unique (in the world at the time and currently much copied) single cylinder engine with full compression and combustion in a single-crystal sapphire cylinder. Together with a quartz piston top this engine gives complete optical access to the flow and combustion processes in the cylinder. Instantaneous image-intensified videography of engine flames together with image processing and analysis led to extensive research and publications concerning the fundamental processes of flow and flame propagation inside of the cylinder. As a tool for studying in-cylinder flows he developed a velocity diagnostic based on seeding micron-sized phosphorescing particles into the flow, stereo imaging the excited laser line to derive 3-D velocity along the line.

Funded Work: High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging, Imaging Systems for Hypervelocity and Reentry Vehicles, Metal Sintering, Hydrogen pellet ablation imaging, Vacuum Cameras.

Areas of Additional Research: Continuing work to develop novel capabilities for imaging all kinds of process environments at all wavelengths

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focussing optics. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Materials Inspection, Handling, and Testing Equipment: Jeol JSM-35 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Bausch & Lomb Metallograph, controlled atmosphere glovebox, hood and vent systems, ultrasonic cleaners, precision balances. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector.

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "In Flight Imaging Systems For Hypervelocity And Reentry Vehicles," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Langley Research Center, Contract # NNL04AB18P, July, (2004).
  2. S.C. Bates, and R.F. Chang, "High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging," Fiber and Integrated Optics, 16, 387-405, (1997).
  3. D.W. Yoel and S.C. Bates "Visual Monitoring of MIM Debinding and Sintering", International Conference on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, May 14-17 Seattle , Washington (1995).
  4. S.C. Bates, "Flame Imaging Studies of Combustion Completion in a SI Four Stroke Engine", GM Research Laboratories Engine Research Dept. Report EN-522, (1993).
  5. S.C. Bates, "A displaced-line velocity diagnostic and its application in a visualization engine," Experiments in Fluids, 7, 5, 335-343 (1989).

22) Injection Molding

Funded Work: Visualization of Part Sintering, Binder for Titanium Injection Molding.

Areas of Additional Research: Research into sintering optimization, Non-contaminating binders, Production of Metal Particles for Injection Molding, Furnaces for Metal Sintering.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces, 1300°C Tube Air Furnace, 1300°C 50 cm cube Kiln, a 1600°C fiber treatment furnace, 700°C low power furnace (75 watts), a 250°C 45x35x55 cm oven, plus variety of 1200°C and below furnaces. Oven, Eurotherm temperature controllers, all types of standard and high temperature (PtRh) thermocouple monitors. Transparent Furnace Apparatus: Two temperature-controlled transparent furnaces (a single zone and a 2-zone type) and associated hardware designed to permit total optical access to small pieces undergoing heat treatment at temperatures up to 1200°C. These furnaces contain heat radiation to achieve high operating temperatures by using an infrared reflecting outer shell. Materials Inspection, Handling, and Testing Equipment: Jeol JSM-35 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Bausch & Lomb Metallograph, controlled atmosphere glovebox, hood and vent systems, ultrasonic cleaners, precision balances. Materials Processing Equipment: Boy 15/7 Injection Molding Machine, 20 ton press.

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "A Novel Binder for Reactive Metal Injection Molding," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NSF Grant No. 9760106, July, (1998)
  2. D.W. Yoel and S.C. Bates "Visual Monitoring of MIM Debinding and Sintering", International Conference on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, May 14-17 Seattle, Washington (1995).

23) Internal Combustion Engines

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Dr. Bates' project was the design, construction, and successful operation of a unique (in the world at the time and currently much copied) single cylinder engine with full compression and combustion in a single-crystal sapphire cylinder. Together with a quartz piston top this engine gives complete optical access to the flow and combustion processes in the cylinder. Instantaneous image-intensified videography of engine flames together with image processing and analysis led to extensive research and publications concerning the fundamental processes of flow and flame propagation inside of the cylinder. As a tool for studying in-cylinder flows he developed a velocity diagnostic based on seeding micron-sized phosphorescing particles into the flow.

Funded Work: Combustion Enhancement Using In-cylinder Microwave Energy

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Combustion Equipment: Variety of laminar and turbulent burners of different geometries, Torches, Compressed flammable gases. Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focussing optics. Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector.

Society Memberships: SAE (84-90)

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "A Transparent Engine for Flow and Combustion Visualization Studies", SAE Paper 880520 (1988).
  2. S.C. Bates, "Insights into Spark-Ignition Four-Stroke Combustion Using Direct Flame Imaging," Combustion and Flame, 85, 3 & 4, 331-352 (1991).
  3. S.C. Bates, "Flame Imaging Studies of Flame Development in a SI Four-Stroke Engine," Dynamics of Deflagrations and Reactive Systems: Flames, A.L. Kuhl, J.C. Leyer, A.A. Borisov, and W.A. Sirignano, Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, 131, AIAA, Washington , DC , 335-377 (1991).
  4. S.C. Bates, "Flame Imaging Studies of Cycle-by-Cycle Combustion Variation in a SI Four-Stroke Engine," SAE Paper 892086 (1989).
  5. S.C. Bates, "Flame Imaging Studies in a Spark-Ignition Four-Stroke Internal Combustion Optical Engine," SAE Paper 890154 (1989).

24) Light Sources

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Dr. Bates' project was the design, construction, and successful operation of a single cylinder visualization engine. As a tool for studying in-cylinder flows he developed a velocity diagnostic based on dye laser excited, micron-sized phosphorescing particles seeded into the flow.

Funded Work: Compact Arc Lamps, Filament Lamps, Flashlamps

Areas of Additional Research: CO2 Lasers, Diode Lasers, Dye Lasers, Diodes.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focussing optics. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector.

Society Memberships: SPIE

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer", Gas Turbine Lab Report #134, M.I.T. (1977).
  2. S.C. Bates, K.S. Knight, " Auxiliary Optical Heating for Controlled Crystal Growth," J. Crystal Growth, 240, 1-2, 277-286, (2002).
  3. C.H. Muller III, D.R. Eames, K.H. Burrell, and S.C. Bates, "Dye Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy on the Doublet III Tokamak", J. Nucl. Mater. ( Netherlands ), Vol. 111-112, Nov. Dec., 1982, 56-60 (5th International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions, 3-7 May 1982, Gatlinburg, TN ) (1982).

25) Materials Science

Funded Work: van der Waals Solids, Structural Materials at Cryogenic Temperatures, High Temperature Material, Materials Properties, Surfaces, Crystallization, Metals, Ceramics, Materials Applications, Failure Theory, Strengthening Materials, Propellants.

Areas of Additional Research: Continuing research and development into a wide variety of materials, materials properties and material diagnostics.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces, 1300°C Tube Air Furnace, 1300°C 50 cm cube Kiln, a 1600°C fiber treatment furnace, 700°C low power furnace (75 watts), a 250°C 45x35x55 cm oven, plus variety of 1200°C and below furnaces. Oven, Eurotherm temperature controllers, all types of standard and high temperature (PtRh) thermocouple monitors. Transparent Furnace Apparatus: Two temperature-controlled transparent furnaces (a single zone and a 2-zone type) and associated hardware designed to permit total optical access to small pieces undergoing heat treatment at temperatures up to 1200°C. These furnaces contain heat radiation to achieve high operating temperatures by using an infrared reflecting outer shell. Coating Equipment: Apparatus for vacuum evaporation internal gold coating of tubes. Two multiported vacuum coating chambers with large diffusion pumps and high current feedthrus, rated 10-6 torr, one 60 cm ID x 40 High, and one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long. A Consolidated Vacuum Corp CV-18 high vacuum coater adapted for a variety of coating geometries. Materials and Chemicals: Rare metals, precious metals, polishing materials, sapphire, quartz, ceramic insulation and glues, specialized chemicals, solvents, flameproof storage, hazardous chemical handling and storage equipment. Materials Inspection, Handling, and Testing Equipment: Jeol JSM-35 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Bausch & Lomb Metallograph, controlled atmosphere glovebox, hood and vent systems, ultrasonic cleaners, precision balances. Materials Processing Equipment: Boy 15/7 Injection Molding Machine, 20 ton press, 2 Strasbaugh polishing machines with polishing apparatus, Dallan Labs planetary lapping machine, manual polishing equipment. Precision diamond cutoff saw, diamond band saw, variety of diamond tooling. Sample Preparation Equipment: Wide variety of polishing materials, laps, fixtures, cutting devices and tools for both metals and ceramics.

Society Memberships: MRS, ASM

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, and T.L. Altshuler, "Shear Strength Testing of Solid Oxygen," Cryogenics, 35, 559-566, (1995).
  2. S.C. Bates, "A Transparent Engine for Flow and Combustion Visualization Studies", SAE Paper 880520 (1988).
  3. S.C. Bates, and P.R. Solomon, "Elevated Temperature Oxygen Index Measurements and Apparatus," Journal of Fire Sciences, 11, May/June, 271-284, (1993)
  4. S.C. Bates, "Low Mass, Low Power, Low Cost Space Furnace," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Contract # NAS8-99040, June, (1999).
  5. S.C. Bates, "Title : Cryostabilized Propellant Additives," AIAA Paper #: AIAA-2003-5213, (2003).

26) Microscopy

Funded Work: Inspection of Sapphire Polished Surfaces, Sintering Visualization, Sapphire Fiber Cladding, Coating Inspection, Coal Particle Microscopy, Ash Particle Microscopy.

Areas of Additional Research: Ceramics and Metal Failure Inspection, Scanning Electron Microscopy of Sapphire, Inspection of Surface Morphology of Bulk Materials.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focussing optics. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Materials Inspection, Handling, and Testing Equipment: Jeol JSM-35 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Bausch & Lomb Metallograph, controlled atmosphere glovebox, hood and vent systems, ultrasonic cleaners, precision balances. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector. Sample Preparation Equipment: Wide variety of polishing materials, laps, fixtures, cutting devices and tools for both metals and ceramics.

Society Memberships: SPIE, MRS

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "Low Loss Sapphire Windows for High Power Microwave Transmission," SBIR Phase 2 Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG02-95ER86038, September, (1999).
  2. D.W. Yoel and S.C. Bates "Visual Monitoring of MIM Debinding and Sintering", International Conference on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, May 14-17 Seattle, Washington (1995).
  3. S.C. Bates, "High Temperature Sapphire Fiber Cladding," STTR Phase I Final Report, AFOSR Contract # F49620-98-C-0063, March, (1999).
  4. S.C. Bates, W.W. Smith, G. Reethof, "Acoustic Hot Gas Cleanup of Coal Ash Particles," SBIR Phase I Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG05-92ER81325, April, (1993).
  5. P.R. Solomon, S.C. Bates, Y.P. Zhang, "Mild Gasification in Transport Reactors," SBIR Phase I Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG05-90ER80877, April, (1991).

27) Microwave/RF Applications

Funded Work: Development of Sapphire Megawatt Transmission Microwave Windows

Areas of Additional Research: Microwave Heating of Ceramics

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Microwave/RF Equipment: 5 kW RF Sputtering Power Supply and Sensors.

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "Low Loss Sapphire Windows for High Power Microwave Transmission," SBIR Phase 2 Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG02-95ER86038, September, (1999).
  2. S.C. Bates, "Energy Fields Effects in Internal Combustion Engines, Final Report of Consulting Research for ORNL, Subcontract 80X-SN737V, Dec. (1993).

28) Optical Materials

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Over 6 years (1984-90) his project was the design, construction, and successful operation of a unique single-crystal sapphire cylinder engine with a quartz piston top. This high heat transfer and high pressure application of sapphire was a novel development in the field.

Funded Work: Extensive Research, Development and Applications of Sapphire, Research, Development and Applications of Reflective Materials, Research, Development and Applications of Optical Fibers

Areas of Additional Research: Extensive Research, Development and Applications of Quartz, IR Window Materials, Phosphors, Fluorescent Materials.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Coating Equipment: Apparatus for vacuum evaporation internal gold coating of tubes. Two multiported vacuum coating chambers with large diffusion pumps and high current feedthrus, rated 10-6 torr, one 60 cm ID x 40 High, and one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long. A Consolidated Vacuum Corp CV-18 high vacuum coater adapted for a variety of coating geometries. Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focussing optics. Materials Processing Equipment: 2 Strasbaugh polishing machines with polishing apparatus, Dallan Labs planetary lapping machine, manual polishing equipment. Precision diamond cutoff saw, diamond band saw, variety of diamond tooling. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector. Sample Preparation Equipment: Wide variety of polishing materials, laps, fixtures, cutting devices and tools for both metals and ceramics. Vacuum Systems: Multiported, Instrumented Diffusion Pump Vacuum Stations: one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long, one 60 cm ID x 40 High with automated controls, 50 cm Bell-Jar Vacuum Station; Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA), multiple diffusion pumps and mechanical vacuum pumps, LN2 baffles and traps, ionization, thermocouple, convection gauges, conflat/KF& etc. hardware.

Society Memberships: SPIE, MRS

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "A Transparent Engine for Flow and Combustion Visualization Studies", SAE Paper 880520 (1988).
  2. S.C. Bates, "High Performance Sapphire Windows," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS3-26330, August, (1992).
  3. S.C. Bates, "Low Loss Sapphire Windows for High Power Microwave Transmission," SBIR Phase 2 Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG02-95ER86038, September, (1999).
  4. S.C. Bates, and R.F. Chang, "High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging," Fiber and Integrated Optics, 16, 387-405, (1997).
  5. S.C. Bates, "In Flight Imaging Systems For Hypervelocity And Reentry Vehicles," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Langley Research Center, Contract # NNL04AB18P, July, (2004).

29) Optical Thin Films

Funded Work: Antireflection Coatings, Gold and Platinum Thin Films, Interference Filter Coatings, Evaporative and Sputter Coated Films.

Areas of Additional Research: Continuing Research, Development and Applications in thin reflective films.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Coating Equipment: Apparatus for vacuum evaporation internal gold coating of tubes. Two multiported vacuum coating chambers with large diffusion pumps and high current feedthrus, rated 10-6 torr, one 60 cm ID x 40 High, and one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long. A Consolidated Vacuum Corp CV-18 high vacuum coater adapted for a variety of coating geometries. Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focussing optics. Materials Processing Equipment: 2 Strasbaugh polishing machines with polishing apparatus, Dallan Labs planetary lapping machine, manual polishing equipment. Precision diamond cutoff saw, diamond band saw, variety of diamond tooling. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector. Sample Preparation Equipment: Wide variety of polishing materials, laps, fixtures, cutting devices and tools for both metals and ceramics. Vacuum Systems: Multiported, Instrumented Diffusion Pump Vacuum Stations: one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long, one 60 cm ID x 40 High with automated controls, 50 cm Bell-Jar Vacuum Station; Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA), multiple diffusion pumps and mechanical vacuum pumps, LN2 baffles and traps, ionization, thermocouple, convection gauges, conflat/KF& etc. hardware.

Society Memberships: SPIE

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development," SBIR Phase 2 Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS3-27664, July, (1997).
  2. S.C. Bates, "Low Mass, Low Power, Low Cost Space Furnace," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Contract # NAS8-99040, June, (1999).
  3. S.C. Bates, "High Temperature Sapphire Fiber Cladding," STTR Phase I Final Report, AFOSR Contract # F49620-98-C-0063, March, (1999).

30) Optics/Optical Diagnostics

ScD Thesis: Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer

He designed, built, and operated a blowdown facility to study turbulent mixing. For this program he considered an array of flow visualization techniques including gas or liquid optical excitation, index of refraction difference imaging (Schlieren and Shadowgraph), particle seeding, and others. The most appropriate technique at that time was found to be planar excited phosphorescence pumped by a focused UV flash lamp which was then a novel technique. The thesis data was in the form of the intensified flow structure images, and data analysis was limited by a lack of the image processing hardware and software now available and used in his later sapphire engine work.

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Dr. Bates' project was the design, construction, and successful operation of a unique (in the world at the time and currently much copied) single cylinder engine with full compression and combustion in a single-crystal sapphire cylinder. Together with a quartz piston top this engine gives complete optical access to the flow and combustion processes in the cylinder. Instantaneous image-intensified videography of engine flames together with image processing and analysis led to extensive research and publications concerning the fundamental processes of flow and flame propagation inside of the cylinder. As a tool for studying in-cylinder flows he developed a velocity diagnostic based on seeding micron-sized phosphorescing particles into the flow.

Funded Work: Focusing of Light Sources, Imaging Light Detectors of all Types, Photomultiplier and Photodiodes, Cameras of all Types, Optical Filtering, Non-Imaging Optics, Mirrors, Lenses, AntiReflection Coatings, IR Materials & Detectors, Fiber Optics, Light Sources, Optics Mounting and Translation, Mirrors, Telescopes, Microscopes, Endoscopes.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Coating Equipment: Apparatus for vacuum evaporation internal gold coating of tubes. Two multiported vacuum coating chambers with large diffusion pumps and high current feedthrus, rated 10-6 torr, one 60 cm ID x 40 High, and one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long. A Consolidated Vacuum Corp CV-18 high vacuum coater adapted for a variety of coating geometries. Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focussing optics. Materials Processing Equipment: 2 Strasbaugh polishing machines with polishing apparatus, Dallan Labs planetary lapping machine, manual polishing equipment. Precision diamond cutoff saw, diamond band saw, variety of diamond tooling. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector. Sample Preparation Equipment: Wide variety of polishing materials, laps, fixtures, cutting devices and tools for both metals and ceramics. Vacuum Systems: Multiported, Instrumented Diffusion Pump Vacuum Stations: one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long, one 60 cm ID x 40 High with automated controls, 50 cm Bell-Jar Vacuum Station; Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA), multiple diffusion pumps and mechanical vacuum pumps, LN2 baffles and traps, ionization, thermocouple, convection gauges, conflat/KF& etc. hardware.

Society Memberships: SPIE, Am. Phys. Soc. (APS) (78-83).

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "An Optimized Semi-Flush Flasher," SBIR Phase 2 Final Report, Dept. of Transportation Contract # DTRS57-01-C-10032, June 23, (2004).
  2. S.C. Bates, R. Carangelo, K.S. Knight, M.A. Serio, "FT-IR Hadamard tomography of sooting flames", Rev. Sci. Instrum., 64, 5, 1213-1221, (1993).
  3. S.C. Bates, "A displaced-line velocity diagnostic and its application in a visualization engine," Experiments in Fluids, 7, 5, 335-343 (1989).
  4. S.C. Bates, "In Flight Imaging Systems For Hypervelocity And Reentry Vehicles," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Langley Research Center, Contract # NNL04AB18P, July, (2004).
  5. S.C. Bates, and R.F. Chang, "High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging," Fiber and Integrated Optics, 16, 387-405, (1997).

31) Particles in Flows

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

As a tool for studying in-cylinder flows he developed a velocity diagnostic based on seeding micron-sized phosphorescing particles into the flow.

Funded Work: Particle Removal from High Temperature Flows, Acoustic Agglomeration of Coal Particles, Coal Particle Gasification, FTIR Particle Diagnostic, High Altitude UAV Droplet Heat Exchanger, Solid Hydrogen Particle Scramjet Fuelling

Areas of Additional Research: Acoustically Enhanced Particle Reactors, Temperature and Flow Diagnostic Using Hot Micron-sized Particles, Cryogenic Particle Heat Exchanger, Droplet Heat Exchangers, Particle Size Sampling Techniques, Laser Doppler Anemometry, Particle Imaging Velocimetry, Particulate Combustion, Electrostatic Particle Removal, Inertial Particle Removal, Solid Hydrogen Particle Ablation.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Combustion Equipment: Variety of laminar and turbulent burners of different geometries, Torches, Compressed flammable gases. Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings.

Patent: U.S. Patent #6,003,300 "Technique for High Mixing Rate, Low Loss Supersonic Combustion with Solid Hydrogen and Liquid Helium Fuel," S.C. Bates, Glastonbury, CT, 1999

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "A displaced-line velocity diagnostic and its application in a visualization engine," Experiments in Fluids, 7, 5, 335-343 (1989).
  2. S.C. Bates, "Assessment Of Solid Hydrogen Slurry Fueling For An Air Breathing Supersonic Combustor," J. Propulsion and Power, 20, 5, (2004).
  3. S.C. Bates, "Hot Gas Clean Up For Particulate Matter," SBIR Phase I Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG05-90ER80875, April, (1991).
  4. S.C. Bates, W.W. Smith, G. Reethof, "Acoustic Hot Gas Cleanup of Coal Ash Particles," SBIR Phase I Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG05-92ER81325, April, (1993).
  5. P.R. Solomon, S.C. Bates, Y.P. Zhang, "Mild Gasification in Transport Reactors," SBIR Phase I Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG05-90ER80877, April, (1991).

32) Plasma Diagnostics

Employment Experience: 1977-1982 Staff Member Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, worked on ISX-A&B Tokamaks - Machine Operation, Head Neutral Beam Operation, Gas fuelling, MHD diagnostic, Ion Exchange Diagnostic, Diagnostic Neutral Beam.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Electronic Equipment: Tektronix TDS 380 400MHz digital storage oscilloscope, Tektronix 2213A oscilloscope, Pulse Generator, Frequency Generator, High Precision Adjustable Power Supplies, High Precision Multimeters, Low Current Meters, Photoelectric Sensors & Amplifiers, Wide variety of electronic supplies. Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focussing optics. Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators.

Society Memberships: Am. Phys. Soc. (APS) (78-83).

Selected References:

  1. S.D. Scott, J.F. Lyon, J.K. Munro, D.J. Sigmar, S.C. Bates, J.D. Bell, C.E. Bush, A. Carnevali, et. al., "Measurements of Periodic Ripple Transport in the ISX-B Tokamak", Nucl. Fusion ( Austria ), 25, March, 359-382 (1985).
  2. R.C. Isler, S.L. Milora, D.E. Arnurius, S.C. Bates, K.H. Burrell, C.E. Bush, K.R. Chu, R.E. Clausing, E.C. Crume, et al., "Experiments in the ISX-B tokamak: electron cyclotron heating, ripple studies, pellet fuelling, impurity flow reversal and surface physics," Plasma Phys. Controlled Nucl. Fusion Res., 8, 1, 53-64 (1981).
  3. C.H. Muller III, D.R. Eames, K.H. Burrell, and S.C. Bates, "Dye Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy on the Doublet III Tokamak", J. Nucl. Mater. ( Netherlands ), Vol. 111-112, Nov. Dec., 1982, 56-60 (5th International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions, 3-7 May 1982, Gatlinburg , TN ) (1982).
  4. J.L. Dunlap, B.A. Carreras, V.K. Pare, J.A. Holmes, S.C. Bates, J.D. Bell, H.R. Hicks, V.E. Lynch, A.P. Navarro, "Magnetohydro-dynamic instability with neutral-beam heating in the ISX-B Tokamak", Phys. Rev. Lett., 48, 8, 22 Feb., 538-41 (1982).
  5. S.C. Bates, K.H. Burrell, "Fast gas injection system for plasma physics experiments", Rev. Sci. Instrum., 55, 6, June, 934-939 (1984).

33) Sapphire/Alumina

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Dr. Bates' project was the design, construction, and successful operation of a unique (in the world at the time and currently much copied) single cylinder engine with full compression and combustion in a single-crystal sapphire cylinder. Together with a quartz piston top this engine gives complete optical access to the flow and combustion processes in the cylinder. Instantaneous image-intensified videography of engine flames together with image processing and analysis led to extensive research and publications concerning the fundamental processes of flow and flame propagation inside of the cylinder.

Funded Work: High Power Sapphire Microwave Windows, High Pressure/High Temperature Sapphire Windows, Sapphire Polishing and Inspection, Sapphire Strengthening, Sapphire Coatings, Sapphire Crystal Growth and Mechanical Fabrication, Wide Variety of Sapphire Applications.

Areas of Additional Research: All aspects of the properties and use of sapphire.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces, 1300°C Tube Air Furnace, 1300°C 50 cm cube Kiln, a 1600°C fiber treatment furnace, 700°C low power furnace (75 watts), a 250°C 45x35x55 cm oven, plus variety of 1200°C and below furnaces. Oven, Eurotherm temperature controllers, all types of standard and high temperature (PtRh) thermocouple monitors. Transparent Furnace Apparatus: Two temperature-controlled transparent furnaces (a single zone and a 2-zone type) and associated hardware designed to permit total optical access to small pieces undergoing heat treatment at temperatures up to 1200°C. These furnaces contain heat radiation to achieve high operating temperatures by using an infrared reflecting outer shell. Coating Equipment: Apparatus for vacuum evaporation internal gold coating of tubes. Two multiported vacuum coating chambers with large diffusion pumps and high current feedthrus, rated 10-6 torr, one 60 cm ID x 40 High, and one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long. A Consolidated Vacuum Corp CV-18 high vacuum coater adapted for a variety of coating geometries. Materials and Chemicals: Rare metals, precious metals, polishing materials, sapphire, quartz, ceramic insulation and glues, specialized chemicals, solvents, flameproof storage, hazardous chemical handling and storage equipment. Materials Inspection, Handling, and Testing Equipment: Jeol JSM-35 Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Bausch & Lomb Metallograph, controlled atmosphere glovebox, hood and vent systems, ultrasonic cleaners, precision balances. Materials Processing Equipment: Boy 15/7 Injection Molding Machine, 20 ton press, 2 Strasbaugh polishing machines with polishing apparatus, Dallan Labs planetary lapping machine, manual polishing equipment. Precision diamond cutoff saw, diamond band saw, variety of diamond tooling. Sample Preparation Equipment: Wide variety of polishing materials, laps, fixtures, cutting devices and tools for both metals and ceramics.

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "A Transparent Engine for Flow and Combustion Visualization Studies", SAE Paper 880520 (1988).
  2. S.C. Bates, "High Performance Sapphire Windows," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS3-26330, August, (1992).
  3. S.C. Bates, "Low Loss Sapphire Windows for High Power Microwave Transmission," SBIR Phase 2 Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG02-95ER86038, September, (1999).
  4. S.C. Bates, and R.F. Chang, "High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging," Fiber and Integrated Optics, 16, 387-405, (1997).
  5. S.C. Bates, "In Flight Imaging Systems For Hypervelocity And Reentry Vehicles," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Langley Research Center, Contract # NNL04AB18P, July, (2004).

34) Sensors

ScD Thesis: Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer - used image-intensified photography to detect mixing patterns in turbulent flows; hot wire anemometry, pressure sensors to monitor facility behavior.

Employment Experience: 1977-1982 Staff Member Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, worked on ISX-A&B Tokamaks - Involved in wide variety of sensor work; instrumentation sensors, Light Sensors, IR Cameras, Magnetic and Electric Field Sensors, Temperature Sensors of all types, including cryogenic, Pressure sensors, Water and Gas Flow Sensors, Spectroscopic Sensors, Motion and Displacement Sensors.

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Extensive use of Imaging Sensors, Temperature Sensors, Crank Angle Sensors, Wide Variety of Pressure Sensors, Optical Sensors, Vibration Sensors, Chemical Composition Sensors, Air/Fuel Mixture Sensors.

Funded Work:TvU's work uses a wide variety of Pressure, Flow, Vacuum, Displacement and Temperature Sensors.

Areas of Additional Research: TvU performs continuing research to develop novel sensors of all types.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focusing optics. Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector.

Selected References:

  1. M. Pollack and S.C. Bates, "Taking Optical Probes in Harsh Environments," Sensors, 17, 6, 76-82 June, (2000).
  2. S.C. Bates, and R.F. Chang, "High Temperature Fiber Optic Imaging," Fiber and Integrated Optics, 16, 387-405, (1997).
  3. S.C. Bates, "In Flight Imaging Systems For Hypervelocity And Reentry Vehicles," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Langley Research Center, Contract # NNL04AB18P, July, (2004).
  4. S.C. Bates, "High Temperature Sapphire Fiber Cladding," STTR Phase I Final Report, AFOSR Contract # F49620-98-C-0063, March, (1999).
  5. M.A. Serio, H. Teng, K.S. Knight, S.C. Bates, et.al., "In-situ fiber optic FT-IR spectroscopy for coal liquefaction processes", SPIE Paper No. 2069, (Dec., 1993).

35) Sintering

Funded Work: Binder for Titanium Injection Molding

Areas of Additional Research: HIP Sintering, Ceramic Sintering, Metal Injection Molding Sintering, Sintering Dynamics, Temperature Dependence of Sintering, Impurity Effects on Sintering, Sintering Imaging, Microwave Sintering, Sintering of Dental Ceramics.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces, 1300°C Tube Air Furnace, 1300°C 50 cm cube Kiln, a 1600°C fiber treatment furnace, 700°C low power furnace (75 watts), a 250°C 45x35x55 cm oven, plus variety of 1200°C and below furnaces. Oven, Eurotherm temperature controllers, all types of standard and high temperature (PtRh) thermocouple monitors. Transparent Furnace Apparatus: Two temperature-controlled transparent furnaces (a single zone and a 2-zone type) and associated hardware designed to permit total optical access to small pieces undergoing heat treatment at temperatures up to 1200°C. These furnaces contain heat radiation to achieve high operating temperatures by using an infrared reflecting outer shell. Vacuum Systems: Multiported, Instrumented Diffusion Pump Vacuum Stations: one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long, one 60 cm ID x 40 High with automated controls, 50 cm Bell-Jar Vacuum Station; Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA), multiple diffusion pumps and mechanical vacuum pumps, LN2 baffles and traps, ionization, thermocouple, convection gauges, conflat/KF& etc. hardware.

Society Memberships: MRS, ASM

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "A Novel Binder for Reactive Metal Injection Molding," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NSF Grant No. 9760106, July, (1998)
  2. D.W. Yoel and S.C. Bates "Visual Monitoring of MIM Debinding and Sintering", International Conference on Powder Metallurgy and Particulate Materials, May 14-17 Seattle, Washington (1995).

36) Spectroscopic Sensing

ScD Thesis: (1977) Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer - Planar excited phosphorescence of organic vapors in a flow pumped by a focused UV flash lamp (before UV lasers were available). Data consisted of images of concentration from one flow resulting from emission from the doped gas.

Employment Experience: 1982 Exchange Program with General Atomic Doublet III Tokamak Program; work on Dye Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy Diagnostic.

Funded Work: FTIR measurement of gaseous and particulate species, IR Temperature Sensing.

Areas of Additional Research: Spectroscopic Sensing of Gases, Flame Spectroscopy, Plasma Spectroscopy, Thermal Emission Spectroscopy, Spectral Fingerprinting of Substances, Raman Spectroscopy.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focusing optics. Fluid Sensors, Controls, and Supplies: Standard and miniature electronic pressure sensors, high and low pressure multiple gas supplies, gauges and fittings, compressed air and bottled gases. Liquid, gas flowmeters, filters; Hydraulic pumps and fittings. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector.

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, P.W. Morrison Jr., P.R. Solomon, "Infrared Monitoring of Combustion," Environmental Sensing and Combustion Diagnostics, Santoleri, J.J., Ed., Proc. SPIE 1434, pp. 28-38 (1991).
  2. C.H. Muller III, D.R. Eames, K.H. Burrell, and S.C. Bates, "Dye Laser Fluorescence Spectroscopy on the Doublet III Tokamak", J. Nucl. Mater. ( Netherlands ), Vol. 111-112, Nov. Dec., 1982, 56-60 (5th International Conference on Plasma Surface Interactions, 3-7 May 1982, Gatlinburg , TN ) (1982).
  3. S.C. Bates, R. Carangelo, K.S. Knight, M.A. Serio, "FT-IR Hadamard tomography of sooting flames", Rev. Sci. Instrum., 64, 5, 1213-1221, (1993). Thin Films/Coatings
  4. M.A. Serio, H. Teng, K.S. Knight, S.C. Bates, P.R. Solomon, "In-Situ FT-IR Diagnostics for Coal Liquefaction Processes," SBIR Phase I Final Report, USDOE Contract # DE-FG05-91ER81151, June, (1992).
  5. H. Teng, M.A. Serio, R. Bassilakis, K.S. Knight, S.C. Bates, and P.R. Solomon, The Application of FT-IR Methods to the Characterization of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams, ACS Div. of Fuel Chem. Preprints, 37, (4), 1903, (1992).
  6. P.R. Solomon, P.W. Morrison Jr., M.A. Serio, R.M. Carangelo, J.R. Markham, S.C. Bates, and J.E. Cosgrove, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy for Open Path Monitoring, proceedings of the "Optical Remote Sensing and Applications to Environmental and Industrial Safety Problem" Conference, Houston Texas, (April 6-9, 1992).

37) Vacuum Systems

Employment Experience: 1977-1982 Staff Member Fusion Energy Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, worked on ISX-A&B Tokamaks - Machine Operation, Head Neutral Beam Operation, Gas fuelling, MHD diagnostic, Ion Exchange Diagnostic, Diagnostic Neutral Beam. All devices operating under medium to high vacuum. All types of vacuum pumping systems and monitors.

Funded Work: Evaporative Gold Coating, Vacuum Furnaces, Vacuum Heat Transfer, Particle/Surface Interaction in Vacuum, Flow Rates in Partial Vacuum, Sputtering, Electrical Breakdown Phenomena, Vacuum Sealing Processes, Leak Detection.

Areas of Additional Research: Vacuum Pyrolysis, Material Vapor Pressure in Vacuum, Absorption and Adsorption, Surface Cleaning, Micro Vacuum Pumps.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Furnace Equipment: 2000°C Tungsten 12x20x25 cm hot zone and 2200°C graphite 6x20 cm hot zone Vacuum Furnaces. Vacuum Systems: Multiported, Instrumented Diffusion Pump Vacuum Stations: one 20 cm ID x 110 cm long, one 60 cm ID x 40 High with automated controls, 50 cm Bell-Jar Vacuum Station; Residual Gas Analyzer (RGA), multiple diffusion pumps and mechanical vacuum pumps, LN2 baffles and traps, ionization, thermocouple, convection gauges, conflat/KF& etc. hardware.

Selected References:

  1. R.C. Isler, S.L. Milora, D.E. Arnurius, S.C. Bates, K.H. Burrell, C.E. Bush, K.R. Chu, R.E. Clausing, E.C. Crume, et al., "Experiments in the ISX-B tokamak: electron cyclotron heating, ripple studies, pellet fuelling, impurity flow reversal and surface physics," Plasma Phys. Controlled Nucl. Fusion Res., 8, 1, 53-64 (1981).
  2. L.A. Massengill, P.H. Edmonds, S.C. Bates, C.M. Loring, "Neutral beam systems for the ISX-B experiment", Proc. Symp. Eng. Probl. Fusion Res., 8, 2, 953-5 (1979).
  3. S.C. Bates, "High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development," SBIR Phase 2 Final Report, NASA Contract # NAS3-27664, July, (1997).
  4. S.C. Bates, "Low Mass, Low Power, Low Cost Space Furnace," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Contract # NAS8-99040, June, (1999).
  5. V. Hruby, M. Martinez-Sanchez, S. Bates, D. Lorents, "A High Thrust Density, C60, Cluster, Ion Thruster," AIAA Paper 94-2466, (1994).

38) Visualization

MIT Aeronautics and Astronautics Department at MIT (BS 70, MS 71, ScD 77), 4.8/5.0 GPA

ScD Thesis: Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer

He designed, built, and operated a blowdown facility to study turbulent mixing. For this program he considered an array of flow visualization techniques including gas or liquid optical excitation, index of refraction difference imaging (Schlieren and Shadowgraph), particle seeding, and others. The most appropriate technique at that time found to be planar excited phosphorescence pumped by a focused UV flash lamp which was then a novel technique. The thesis data was in the form of the intensified flow structure images, and data analysis was limited by a lack of the image processing hardware and software now available and used in his later sapphire engine work.

Employment Experience: 1983-1990 Staff Engineer, General Motors Research Laboratories, Warren, MI

Over 6 years (1984-90) his project was the design, construction, and successful operation of a unique (in the world at the time and currently much copied) single cylinder engine with full compression and combustion in a single-crystal sapphire cylinder. Together with a quartz piston top this engine gives complete optical access to the flow and combustion processes in the cylinder. Instantaneous image-intensified videography of engine flames together with image processing and analysis led to extensive research into the visualization of the flows and flames inside the cylinder volume. Dr. Bates developed a velocity diagnostic based on seeding micron-sized phosphorescing particles into the flow to provide visualization of the 3-D in-cylinder velocities.

Funded Work: Hypersonic Flow Imaging, Sooting Flame Diagnosis, Real-time Sintering Imaging, Process Visualization using Transparent Furnaces, High Temperature and Pressure Windows, and Endoscopes, High Temperature Process Visualization using IR Filtering and Visible Lighting, Crystal Growth Visualization, Coal Pyrolysis and Combustion, Particle Behavior in Flows, Heat Flow.

Areas of Additional Research: Extensive Work in Computational Visualization, Stress Visualization, Valve Flow Visualization, Lubrication Flow Visualization, Molecular Dynamics Visualization in Solids, Liquids, Gases, and Plasmas, Molecular Level Solid Mechanics, Process Visualization.

Specifically Relevant TvU Facilities and Equipment Available: Fiber Optics: Wide variety of fibers: sapphire, quartz, glass, plastic, fiber polishing equipment, fiber test optical mounts, fixturing devices, focussing optics. Imaging Equipment: High resolution digital cameras, B/W and color video cameras, VCR, monitors, video frame grabber/processor, and image processing software. Light Sources: 15W CO2 laser, low power HeNe lasers, arc lamps, compact arc flash lamps, high power halogen lamps, mercury UV lamp, tungsten filament lamps, fiber optic illuminators. Materials Processing Equipment: 2 Strasbaugh polishing machines with polishing apparatus, Dallan Labs planetary lapping machine, manual polishing equipment. Precision diamond cutoff saw, diamond band saw, variety of diamond tooling. Optics: Optical bench, optical cements, bundles and illuminators, various lenses, wide variety of sapphire windows, low f-number elliptical and planar electrodeposited mirrors, variety of wavelength-variable filters, extensive mounting and translation apparatus, gold-coated mirrors. Optical Diagnostics: 60X stereo microscope, near infrared (NIR) video camera for thermal imaging, precision radiant power meter, illumination meter, high speed intensity detector.

Society Memberships: AIAA

Selected References:

  1. S.C. Bates, "Luminescent Visualization of Molecular and Turbulent Transport in a Plane Shear Layer", Gas Turbine Lab Report #134, M.I.T. (1977).
  2. S.C. Bates, "Insights into Spark-Ignition Four-Stroke Combustion Using Direct Flame Imaging," Combustion and Flame, 85, 3 & 4, 331-352 (1991).
  3. S.C. Bates, R. Carangelo, K.S. Knight, M.A. Serio, "FT-IR Hadamard tomography of sooting flames", Rev. Sci. Instrum., 64, 5, 1213-1221, (1993).
  4. S.C. Bates, "A displaced-line velocity diagnostic and its application in a visualization engine," Experiments in Fluids, 7, 5, 335-343 (1989).
  5. S.C. Bates, "In Flight Imaging Systems For Hypervelocity And Reentry Vehicles," SBIR Phase I Final Report, NASA Langley Research Center, Contract # NNL04AB18P, July, (2004).

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Last updated: July 2013